GREAT INVENTORS AND THEIR INVENTIONS. 2 all. The man who succeeded in giving to the world this new power was James Watt. Steam now propels. Important Inventions and Discoveries PDF covers the list of all Important Inventions This list gives important Inventions and Inventor name. g Dr. Spencer was excited about his discovery. h He saw the melted chocolate. Dr. Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven. The invention happened by.
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In the March, , issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, Baulieu and his coworkers reported that with one dose of RU, followed in thirty-six to forty-eight hours with a low dose of prostaglandin, 96 percent of the 2, women they studied had a complete abortion with few side effects. The women were monitored after receiving the prostaglandin to watch for side effects, which included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.
When they returned for a later checkup, fewer than 2 percent of the women complained of side effects. The researchers used two different prostaglandins; they found that one caused a quicker abortion but also brought about more pain and a longer period of bleeding.
Using the Drug In September, , the French government approved the distribution of RU for use in government-controlled clinics. The next month, however, Roussel Uclaf stopped selling the drug because people opposed to abortion did not want RU to be available and were threatening to boycott the company. Then, however, there were threats and pressure from the other side.
For example, members of the World Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology announced that they might boycott Roussel Uclaf if it did not make RU available. The French government, which controlled a 36 percent interest in Roussel Uclaf, ordered the company to start distributing the drug once more.
By the fall of , more than one-fourth of all early abortions in France were being done with RU and a prostaglandin. The French government began helping to pay the cost of using RU in In the United States, government regulations did not allow RU to be tested using government funds. Medical researchers believe that RU may be useful not only for abortions but also in other ways. For example, it may help in treating certain breast cancers and other tumors. RU is also being investigated as a possible treatment for glaucomato lower pressure in the eye that may be caused by a high level of steroid hormone.
It may be useful in promoting the healing of skin wounds and softening the cervix at birth, easing delivery. Researchers hope as well that some form of RU may prove useful as a contraceptivethat is, not to prevent a fertilized egg from implanting itself in the mothers uterus but to prevent ovulation in the first place. Impact Groups opposed to abortion rights have spoken out against RU, while those who favor the right to abortion have urged its acceptance.
The drug has been approved for use in China as well as in France. In the United States, however, the government has avoided giving its approval to the drug. Under international law, WHO has the right to take control of the drug and make it available in poor countries at low cost.
Because of the controversy surrounding the drug, however, WHO called for more testing to ensure that RU is quite safe for women. Butler, John Douglas, and David F. Abortion, Medicine, and the Law. New York: Facts on File, Abortion pill Lyall, Sarah. New York Times January 15, McCuen, Gary E. Hudson, Wis. Nemecek, Sasha. The Second Abortion Pill. Scientific American , no. Zimmerman, Rachel. Wall Street Journal May 23, Airplane Airplane The invention: The first heavier-than-air craft to fly, the airplane revolutionized transportation and symbolized the technological advances of the twentieth century.
The people behind the invention: Wilbur Wright , an American inventor Orville Wright , an American inventor Octave Chanute , a French-born American civil engineer A Careful Search Although people have dreamed about flying since the time of the ancient Greeks, it was not until the late eighteenth century that hotair balloons and gliders made human flight possible. It was not until the late nineteenth century that enough experiments had been done with kites and gliders that people could begin to think seriously about powered, heavier-than-air flight.
Two of these people were Wilbur and Orville Wright. Library of Congress Airplane The Wright brothers were more than just tinkerers who accidentally found out how to build a flying machine.
In , Wilbur wrote the Smithsonian Institution for a list of books to help them learn about flying. They used the research of people such as George Cayley, Octave Chanute, Samuel Langley, and Otto Lilienthal to help them plan their own experiments with birds, kites, and gliders.
They even built their own wind tunnel. They never fully trusted the results of other peoples research, so they repeated the experiments of others and drew their own conclusions. They shared these results with Octave Chanute, who was able to offer them lots of good advice. They were continuing a tradition of excellence in engineering that began with careful research and avoided dangerous trial and error.
Slow Success Before the brothers had set their minds to flying, they had built and repaired bicycles. This was a great help to them when they put their research into practice and actually built an airplane. From building bicycles, they knew how to work with wood and metal to make a lightweight but sturdy machine. Just as important, from riding bicycles, they got ideas about how an airplane needed to work. They could see that both bicycles and airplanes needed to be fast and light.
They could also see that airplanes, like bicycles, needed to be kept under constant control to stay balanced, and that this control would probably take practice. This was a unique idea. Instead of building something solid that was controlled by levers and wheels like a car, the Wright brothers built a flexible airplane that was controlled partly by the movement of the pilot, like a bicycle.
The result was the Wright Flyer. The Flyer had two sets of wings, one above the other, which were about 12 meters from tip to tip. They made their own horsepower engine, as well as the two propellers the engine spun. The craft had skids instead of wheels. The first thing Wilbur found was that flying an airplane was not as easy as riding a bicycle. One wrong move sent him tumbling into Airplane The Wright Brothers Orville and his older brother Wilbur first got interested in aircraft when their father gave them a toy helicopter in Theirs was a large, supportive family.
Their father, a minister, and their mother, a college graduate and inventor of household gadgets, encouraged all five of the children to be creative. Although Wilbur, born in , was four years older than Orville, they were close as children. While in high school, they put out a weekly newspaper together, West Side News, and they opened their bicycle shop in Orville was the mechanically adept member of the team, the tinkerer; Wilbur was the deliberative one, the planner and designer.
Since the bicycle business was seasonal, they had time to pursue their interest in aircraft, puzzling out the technical problems and studying the successes and failures of others.
They started with gliders, flying their first, which had a five-foot wing span, in They developed their own technique to control the gliders, the wing-warping technique, after watching how birds fly.
They attached wires to the trailing edges of the wings and pulled the wires to deform the wings shape. They built a sixteen-foot glider in and spent a vacation in North Carolina gaining flying experience. Further designs and many more tests followed, including more than two hundred shapes of wing studied in their home-built wind tunnel, before their first successful engine-powered flight in Neither man ever married.
After Wilbur died of typhoid in , Orville was stricken by the loss of his brother but continued to run their business until He last piloted an airplane himself in and died thirty years later. Small parts from the aircraft were taken to the Moon by Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin when they made the first landing there in Wilbur was not seriously hurt, but a few more days were needed to repair the Wright Flyer.
On December 17, , at a. He covered 37 meters of ground and meters of air space. Both brothers took two flights that morning.
On the fourth flight, Wilbur flew for fifty-nine seconds over meters of ground and through more than meters of air space. After he had landed, a sudden gust of wind struck the plane, damaging it beyond repair. Yet no one was able to beat their record for three years. Impact Those first flights in got little publicity.
Only a few people, such as Octave Chanute, understood the significance of the Wright brothers achievement. For the next two years, they continued to work on their design, and by they had built the Wright Flyer III.
Although Chanute tried to get them to enter flying contests, the brothers decided to be cautious and try to get their machine patented first, so that no one would be able to steal their ideas. News of their success spread slowly through the United States and Europe, giving hope to others who were working on airplanes of their own. By , when the brothers started flying in air shows and contests, their feats were matched by another American, Glen Hammond Curtiss. The age of the airplane had arrived.
Later in the decade, the Wright brothers began to think of military uses for their airplanes. They signed a contract with the U. Army Signal Corps and agreed to train military pilots. Aside from these achievements, the brothers from Dayton, Ohio, set the standard for careful research and practical experimentation. They taught the world not only how to fly but also how to design airplanes. Indeed, their methods of purposeful, meaningful, and highly organized research had an impact not only on airplane design but also on the field of aviation science in general.
Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, New York: McGraw-Hill, Culik, Fred, and Spencer Dunmore.
Toronto: McArthur, Howard, Fred. Mineola, N. The people behind the invention: Thomas Alva Edison , American chemist, inventor, and industrialist Henry Ford , American inventor and industrialist Charles F. Kettering , American engineer and inventor A Three-Way Race The earliest automobiles were little more than pairs of bicycles harnessed together within a rigid frame, and there was little agreement at first regarding the best power source for such contraptions.
The steam engine, which was well established for railroad and ship transportation, required an external combustion area and a boiler. Internal combustion engines required hand cranking, which could cause injury if the motor backfired. Electric motors were attractive because they did not require the burning of fuel, but they required batteries that could store a considerable amount of energy and could be repeatedly recharged.
Ninety percent of the motorcabs in use in New York City in were electrically powered. Sabrinathan Nair. News Release: ObamaRelease YourRecords. Alok Singh. Danang Istiaji. Nur Hidayah.
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Homeopathy for Today s World - Rajan Sankaran. Anonymous tj7hAlI. Dave Walker. Renzo Tartarini. Alberto Mathison. Virender Rana. Muhammad Rizwan. Bishop Ojonuguwa Ameh. Antibacterial drugs. John Douglas. RU is also being investigated as a possible treatment for glaucoma—to lower pressure in the eye that may be caused by a high level of steroid hormone.
WHO has the right to take control of the drug and make it available in poor countries at low cost. It may be useful in promoting the healing of skin wounds and softening the cervix at birth. Impact Groups opposed to abortion rights have spoken out against RU Researchers hope as well that some form of RU may prove useful as a contraceptive—that is.
The drug has been approved for use in China as well as in France. Artificial hormone. WHO called for more testing to ensure that RU is quite safe for women. Under international law. Hoechst AG. New York: Facts on File. Medical researchers believe that RU may be useful not only for abortions but also in other ways.
Birth control pill. Because of the controversy surrounding the drug. Further Reading Baulieu. RU The Abortion Pill Controversy. Gary E. GEM Publications. Wilbur Wright The first heavier-than-air craft to fly. North Carolina. Two of these people were Wilbur and Orville Wright. Library of Congress. The Wright brothers making their first successful powered flight. It was not until the late nineteenth century that enough experiments had been done with kites and gliders that people could begin to think seriously about powered.
Just as important. The Flyer had two sets of wings. This was a great help to them when they put their research into practice and actually built an airplane. Instead of building something solid that was controlled by levers and wheels like a car.
The first thing Wilbur found was that flying an airplane was not as easy as riding a bicycle. One wrong move sent him tumbling into. They used the research of people such as George Cayley. They could see that both bicycles and airplanes needed to be fast and light. In They could also see that airplanes. They made their own horsepower engine. On December Slow Success Before the brothers had set their minds to flying. They were continuing a tradition of excellence in engineering that began with careful research and avoided dangerous trial and error.
The result was the Wright Flyer. They shared these results with Octave Chanute. From building bicycles. They even built their own wind tunnel. Octave Chanute. This was a unique idea. Wilbur wrote the Smithsonian Institution for a list of books to help them learn about flying. Samuel Langley. The craft had skids instead of wheels. Wilbur was the deliberative one. They built a sixteen-foot glider in and spent a vacation in North Carolina gaining flying experience.
Although Wilbur. Orville Wright took to the air for a historic twelve sec-. They developed their own technique to control the gliders. He last piloted an airplane himself in and died thirty years later.
Further designs and many more tests followed. Their first powered airplane. Theirs was a large. Wilbur was not seriously hurt. Neither man ever married. While in high school.
Small parts from the aircraft were taken to the Moon by Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin when they made the first landing there in They started with gliders.
Orville was the mechanically adept member of the team. After Wilbur died of typhoid in Since the bicycle business was seasonal. Their father. West Side News. Orville was stricken by the loss of his brother but continued to run their business until For the next two years. He covered 37 meters of ground and meters of air space. Wilbur flew for fifty-nine seconds over meters of ground and through more than meters of air space. On the fourth flight. See also Bullet train.
Yet no one was able to beat their record for three years. News of their success spread slowly through the United States and Europe. Army Signal Corps and agreed to train military pilots. Aside from these achievements. Later in the decade. Only a few people. Both brothers took two flights that morning. Glen Hammond Curtiss.
Although Chanute tried to get them to enter flying contests. After he had landed. They signed a contract with the U. They taught the world not only how to fly but also how to design airplanes.
Impact Those first flights in got little publicity. The age of the airplane had arrived. The American Aviation Experience: A History. Orville Wright. Wilbur and Orville: A Biography of the Wright Brothers. Marvin Wilks. The Papers of Wilbur and Orville Wright: Dover Publications. On Great White Wings: The Wright Brothers and the Race for Flight. Southern Illinois University Press. The steam engine.
The nickel-iron alkaline battery was a lightweight. Electric motors were attractive because they did not require the burning of fuel. American engineer and inventor A Three-Way Race The earliest automobiles were little more than pairs of bicycles harnessed together within a rigid frame.
American chemist. The first practical storage battery. Kettering In addition. Ninety percent of the motorcabs in use in New York City in were electrically powered. Thomas Alva Edison Internal combustion engines required hand cranking.
American inventor and industrialist Charles F. In somewhat improved form. Edison considered the lead acid cell battery unsuitable as a power source for electric vehicles because using lead.
For use in the battery. After much further experimentation. Edison began experiments aimed at developing a rechargeable battery with inexpensive and lightweight metal electrodes and an alkaline electrolyte so that a metal container could be used.
He downloadd impure nickel alloy. He prepared pure iron powder by using a multiple-step process. Edison settled on the nickel-iron system for his new storage battery. Edison set up a new chemical works to prepare the needed materials. When the battery was recharged. Zinc electrodes could not be used in a rechargeable cell because the zinc would dissolve in the electrolyte. Although the basic ingredients of the Edison cell were inexpensive. He had already been involved in manufacturing the nonrechargeable battery known as the Lalande cell.
The copper electrode also turned out to be unsatisfactory. The Edison Battery In In this system. Sales of the new Edison storage battery began in At times as many as one hundred people worked for him. His astonishing success story. At age twenty-three he sold the rights to his first major invention. Patent Office issued Edison 1. It led to his large facilities at Menlo Park. He invested the money in building an industrial research laboratory.
At his labs Edison not only developed electrical items. Hailed as a genius. He was still receiving patents the year he died. In fact. New Jersey. Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration. He also understood the value of working with others. The U. Because the nickel compounds were poor electrical conductors. Edison himself emphasized the value of plain determination. Corporations still bear his name.
The phonograph. Edison never stopped working. The Ford Motor Company. Not a man to abandon an invention. Electrical power is still preferable to internal combustion for indoor use. Electrically powered trucks proved to be well suited for local deliveries.
By using a different type of graphite. Interest in electrically powered transportation diminished as immense reserves of crude oil. Impact Edison lost the race to produce an electrical power source that would meet the needs of automotive transportation.
Although the Kettering starter required a battery. Charles Kettering invented an electric starter for gasoline-powered vehicles that eliminated the need for troublesome and risky hand cranking. The introduction of the improved Edison battery in gave a boost to electric car manufacturers.
He discovered that the repeated charging and discharging of the battery caused a shift in the distribution of the graphite in the nickel hydroxide electrode. Ford R. University of Chicago Press. Further Reading Baldwin. Wayne State University Press. See also Compressed-air-accumulating power plant.
A Life of Invention. San Diego. Thomas Edison. Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry Ford. Greenhaven Press. Arno Press. Professional Amateur: The Biography of Charles Franklin Kettering. The Edison battery also continues to be used in mines. Inventing the Century. Thomas Alvin. At the beginning of the twentieth century. The clover is able to absorb nitrogen from the air and deposit it in the soil through its roots.
One such method is crop rotation. The person behind the invention: Fritz Haber The first successful method for converting nitrogen from the atmosphere and combining it with hydrogen to synthesize ammonia.
Germany had practically no source of fertilizer-grade nitrogen. Ammonia was produced by dry distillation of bituminous coal and other lowgrade fuel materials. Much of the nitrate used. As population has increased. Nitrogen-bearing compounds. They had found that a certain amount of ammonia was always left undecomposed. Having determined the point of equilibrium. Haber decided to determine the point at which this equilibrium took place at temperatures near 1.
Temperature and Pressure When Fritz Haber and coworkers began his experiments on ammonia production in He tried several approaches. In other words. Soon thereafter. Catalytic agents speed up a reaction without affecting it otherwise. A pilot plant was constructed and was successful enough to impress a chemical company.
As demand for nitrates increased. Other sources needed to be found. Further work by Haber showed that increasing the pressure also increased the percentage of ammonia at equilibrium. Beginning in Haber was born in Breslau now Wroclaw. Poland in After the fall of Antwerp. Only artificial nitrates could sustain the amount of agriculture needed to feed expanding populations. Eight years of experiments in extracting gold from seawater ended in failure. After the war he redirected his energies to helping Germany rebuild its economy.
In Haber succeeded in finding an efficient. Nitrogen in the form of nitrates was urgently sought because nitrates were necessary to fertilize crops and natural sources were becoming rare. Although he soon took an academic job. Beware of what you create. He was lauded as a great benefactor to humanity. A brilliant student. His wife committed suicide because of his chlorine gas research. Considered a leading chemist of his age. Carl Bosch. Thermal cracking process. At the end of the war. He was invited to accept a position with the University of Cambridge..
Inventor of German Asphyxiating Gas. He also directed research on gas masks and other protective devices. Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber. Morris Herbert. MIT Press. The Story of Fritz Haber. Further Reading Goran. Chemistry Honor Given to Dr. See also Fuel cell. Haber left Germany in under duress from the anti-Semitic policies of the Nazi authorities. University of Oklahoma Press. A technique for removing amniotic fluid from pregnant women.
About a week after conception. After conception. Douglas Bevis. At the beginning of a human pregnancy conception an egg and a sperm unite to produce the fertilized egg that will become a new human being. The article is viewed by many as a landmark in medicine that led to the wide use of amniocentesis as a tool for diagnosing fetal maturity. In time. A beginning to the solution of this problem occurred on February Many other factors inferred from the medical history an expecting mother provides to her physician can indicate the possible appearance of birth defects.
Also at this time. Diabetic mothers and mothers older than thirtyfive years have higher than usual chances of delivering babies who have birth defects. Amniocentesis is. As soon as amniotic fluid is seen. At this time. Information is obtained through the examination of the amniotic fluid in which the fetus is suspended throughout pregnancy. Uterus the expectant mother typically visits a physician and finds out she is pregnant.
In some cases. Immediately after the fluid is removed from the fetus. Lecithins are important because they are essential components of the so-called pulmonary surfactant of mature lungs. This effect is then confirmed by the repeated use of amniocentesis. Hundreds of debilitating hereditary diseases can be diagnosed and some ameliorated—by. The amniotic fluid of early pregnancy resembles blood serum.
As pregnancy continues. The fluid also contains fetal cells from skin and from the gastrointestinal.
Lecithins and sphingomyelins are two types of body lipids fatty molecules that are useful diagnostic tools. Many other problems can also be identified by the use of amniocentesis and corrected before the baby is born.
Both diseases can be fatal. One important use of the amniotic fluid from amniocentesis is the determination of its lecithin and sphingomyelin content.
The pulmonary surfactant acts at lung surfaces to prevent the collapse of the lung air sacs alveoli when a person exhales. This is particularly important in fetuses being carried by diabetic mothers. Women and Prenatal Testing: Facing the Challenges of Genetic Technology.
Testing Women. Karen H. There remains the question of whether such solutions are morally appropriate. Testing the Fetus: The Social Impact of Amniocentesis in America. Johns Hopkins University Press. The Tentative Pregnancy: How Amniocentesis Changes the Experience of Motherhood. Nuclear magnetic resonance. For many parents who have had a child afflicted by some hereditary disease. Genetic Disorders and the Fetus: Ohio State University Press. It is also hoped that these techniques will lead to means for correcting and preventing diseases and preclude the need for considering the therapeutic termination of any pregnancy.
Barbara Katz. Further Reading Milunsky. See also Abortion pill. X-ray image intensifier. Gerhard Domagk Ehrlich tested numerous compounds that had been developed by the German dye industry. Ehrlich thus searched for and found a less toxic arsenic compound. From to He eventually found that a number of complex trypan dyes would inhibit the protozoans that caused African sleeping sickness. Ehrlich was familiar with the technique of using dyes to stain microorganisms in order to make them visible under a microscope.
Ehrlich and his coworkers also synthesized hundreds of organic compounds that contained arsenic. Sulfonamides and other drugs that have proved effective in combating many previously untreatable bacterial diseases. This was an important discovery. Paul Ehrlich. This red azo dye containing a sulfonamide was named prontosil rubrum. From the dye methylene blue. Domagk began a rigorous testing program to determine the effectiveness and dangers of prontosil use at different doses in animals.
Well Worth the Effort Gerhard Domagk had been trained in medicine. This chemical was introduced in and used during World War II.
It was much less toxic to the patient than any of the drugs Ehrlich had developed. Two years later. The firm supplied samples of the. Kala-azar affected millions of people in Africa. A number of these dyes were synthesized from sulfonamides and purified by Fritz Mietzsch and Josef Klarer.
Domagk found that many of these dyes protected mice infected with the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes. Since all chemicals injected into animals or humans are potentially dangerous. Domagk determined the doses that harmed or killed. In those days. Prior to the discovery that prontosil could be use to treat bacterial infection and the subsequent development of a series of sulfonamides.
Animal experimentation can give only an indication of which chemicals might be useful in humans and which doses are required. When the American bacteriologist Rene Dubos discovered that natural organisms could also be used to fight bacteria. In an attempt to alleviate the swelling. Impact Directly and indirectly.
In desperation. The child became critically ill with developing septicemia. A small injury could easily lead to death. He extrapolated from his animal experiments how much to give his daughter so that the bacteria would be killed but his daughter would not be poisoned. By following the clues presented by the synthetic sulfa drugs and how they worked to destroy bacteria.
Within hours of the first treatment. Domagk thus learned which doses were effective and safe. One day while knitting. Holmes and Meier. Yellow fever vaccine. Further Reading Alstaedter. From Germanin to Acylureidopenicillin: Research That Made History: Documentation of a Scientific Revolution: Antibiotics have replaced sulfa drugs for most uses.
River Edge. West Germany: Bayer AG.: World Scientific. Physiology or Medicine. Behind the Sulfa Drugs. See also Penicillin. Paul Ehrlich: