14 Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra, Volume 16, Nomor 1, April , hlm. Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Dunia Indonesia, tahun akademik / Kata kunci: tata bahasa, kalimat dengan tata bahasa yang benar. Uang langganan dapat dikirim dengan wesel ke alamat Tata Usaha. . Siswa masih merasa kesulitan untuk memahami tata bahasa Inggris bahkan untuk level . Here is your home to download popular android apps and games related to tata bahasa inggris lengkap pdf free download. All the best free apps and games.
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dalam bahasa Inggris menggunakan standar tatabahasa Inggris yang tepat dalam Dalam perkuliahan ini dibahas poin-poin tatabahasa Inggris dasar ( Basic. PDF | This study aims at knowing the students' interest in learning English Meningkatkan Kemampuan Tata Bahasa Inggris Siswa Melalui. Explore Agustinus wahyu's board "Tata bahasa inggris" on Pinterest. | See more Free printable PDF grammar worksheets, quizzes and games, from A to Z, for.
What I, do? B: You rub A: Close, but not exactly right. Try again. B: Aha! You rub A: Right. Game Directions: On a pice of paper , write an action that a classmate can demonstrate e. Give your paper to the teacher, who will redestribute the papers at random to the class. Then everyone will take turns performing these actions for the entire class to guess and describe, using the present continuous tense.
Penggunaan Present perfect tense digunakan untuk: a menyatakan aktifitas yang telah terjadi di masa lampau dan tidak jelas keterangan waktunya, b menyatakan aktifitas yang telah dikerjakan secara berulang-ulang.
Sehubungan jenis tenses ini tidak memiliki keterangan waktu yang spesifik, maka jenis tenses ini biasanya menggunakan kata for selama dan since sejak. Febby : No, I have not accepted letter. Nuril : Who has accepted letter? Nuril : What have you accepted? Febby : I have accepted your love. Buatlah dialog dengan menggunakan Present Perfect tense! Emi : ………………………………? Rani : ……………………………… - Emi : ………………………………? O Rani : ………………………………. Exercise Direction:Comple the sentences with any appropriate time expressions!
Today is I bought this book I have had this book since I have had this book for I have a pen. I bought it I have had this pen for I have had this pen since I moved to this city I have been in this city since I have been here for It is the year I started going to school in the year I have been a student since I first met my teacher Worksheet What have you Where have you How much money have you What have you How often have you How many people from from How many essays have you What is the longest you have How much money have you sleep since coming to this Whom have you Give each student a question card, use two different colours of paper yellow and red.
Call all students half the class with a yellow card to the front and have them stand in a line facing the class; 2. The other half of the class stands in front of the first line. If there are an odd number of students, either one questioner waits for someone to question, or the extra person in the answer line waits until the line moves; 3.
The student asking the question 20 fills in the blanks with the correct form of the verb given on the card. When everyone has answered the question, the students in the answer line move down one and are asked a new question. Continue until all the students in the answer line have talked to every student in the question line. The students in the lines now switch positions, and the former answerers are now the questioners. Continue as in 3 above. Explanation: using two diferent colours of cards or papers makes it easy to devide the students into questionares and answerers.
When all of the students with yellow cards have questioned all the students with pik cards, switch lines so that the students asking questions now have pink cards.
NOTE: before doing the line-ups, you may want to do a sample card on the board so that the students know what is expected of them.
Ask them how to fill in the blanks. Penggunaan Present perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk menyatakan aktifitas yang telah terjadi di masa lampau dan berlangsung hingga waktu sekarang. Keterangan waktu yang biasanya digunakan dalam Present Perfect Continuous Tense adalah: for selama , since sejak , all morning sepanjang pagi , all day sepanjang hari , dan all week seminggu penuh.
Febby : No, I have not been advising the students. Nuril : Who has been advising the students? Febby : Faiq has been advising the students. Nuril : Whom Have you been advising? Febby : I have been advising my son. Buatlah dialog dengan menggunakan Present Perfect Continuous Tense! Devi : ………………………………? Simple, Compound, and Complex A common weakness in writing is the lack of varied sentences. Becoming aware of three general types of sentences--simple, compound, and complex--can help you vary the sentences in your writing.
The most effective writing uses a variety of the sentence types explained below. Simple Sentences A simple sentence has the most basic elements that make it a sentence: Examples of simple sentences include the following: Mary and Samantha took the bus. I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station. Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station early but waited until noon for the bus. If you use many simple sentences in an essay, you should consider revising some of the sentences into compound or complex sentences explained below.
The use of compound subjects, compound verbs, prepositional phrases such as "at the bus station" , and other elements help lengthen simple sentences, but simple sentences often are short. The use of too many simple sentences can make writing "choppy" and can prevent the writing from flowing smoothly.
A simple sentence can also be referred to as an independent clause. It is referred to as "independent" because, while it might be part of a compound or complex sentence, it can also stand by itself as a complete sentence. Compound Sentences A compound sentence refers to a sentence made up of two independent clauses or complete sentences connected to one another with a coordinating conjunction. Joe waited for the train, but the train was late.
I looked for Mary and Samantha at the bus station, but they arrived at the station before noon and left on the bus before I arrived. Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, and they left on the bus before I arrived. Mary and Samantha left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus station. If you rely heavily on compound sentences in an essay, you should consider revising some of them into complex sentences explained below.
Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting sentences, but compound sentences often are overused. While coordinating conjunctions can indicate some type of relationship between the two independent clauses in the sentence, they sometimes do not indicate much of a relationship. The word "and," for example, only adds one independent clause to another, without indicating how the two parts of a sentence are logically related.
Too many compound sentences that use "and" can weaken writing. Clearer and more specific relationships can be established through the use of complex sentences. Complex Sentences A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses connected to it.
A dependent clause is similar to an independent clause, or complete sentence, but it lacks one of the elements that would make it a complete sentence. Examples of dependent clauses include the following: Dependent clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Below are some of the most common subordinating conjunctions: The dependent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the independent clause, as in the following: When the dependent clause comes first, a comma should be used to separate the two clauses.
Because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon, I did not see them at the station. While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late. After they left on the bus, Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station.
Conversely, the independent clauses can go first in the sentence, followed by the dependent clause, as in the following: When the independent clause comes first, a comma should not be used to separate the two clauses. I did not see them at the station because Mary and Samantha arrived at the bus station before noon. Joe realized that the train was late while he waited at the train station. Mary and Samantha realized that Joe was waiting at the train station after they left on the bus.
Complex sentences are often more effective than compound sentences because a complex sentence indicates clearer and more specific relationships between the main parts of the sentence. The word "before," for instance, tells readers that one thing occurs before another. A word such as "although" conveys a more complex relationship than a word such as "and" conveys. The term periodic sentence is used to refer to a complex sentence beginning with a dependent clause and ending with an independent clause, as in "While he waited at the train station, Joe realized that the train was late.
Taken from: Expressing ideas in a paragraph. Paragraphs and Topic Sentences A paragraph is a series of sentences that are organized and coherent, and are all related to a single topic.
Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.
Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects.
Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence. Topic Sentences A well-organized paragraph supports or develops a single controlling idea, which is expressed in a sentence called the topic sentence.
A topic sentence has several important functions: Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph. Although most paragraphs should have a topic sentence, there are a few situations when a paragraph might not need a topic sentence. For example, you might be able to omit a topic sentence in a paragraph that narrates a series of events, if a paragraph continues developing an idea that you introduced with a topic sentence in the previous paragraph, or if all the sentences and details in a paragraph clearly refer—perhaps indirectly—to a main point.
The vast majority of your paragraphs, however, should have a topic sentence. Paragraph Structure Most paragraphs in an essay have a three-part structure—introduction, body, and conclusion. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information.
Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader. Coherence In a coherent paragraph, each sentence relates clearly to the topic sentence or controlling idea, but there is more to coherence than this.
If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader. If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea.
On the other hand, if a paragraph is very short only one or two sentences, perhaps , you may need to develop its controlling idea more thoroughly, or combine it with another paragraph. A number of other techniques that you can use to establish coherence in paragraphs are described below. Repeat key words or phrases. Particularly in paragraphs in which you define or identify an important idea or theory, be consistent in how you refer to it. This consistency and repetition will bind the paragraph together and help your reader understand your definition or description.
Create parallel structures. Parallel structures are created by constructing two or more phrases or sentences that have the same grammatical structure and use the same parts of speech. By creating parallel structures you make your sentences clearer and easier to read. In addition, repeating a pattern in a series of consecutive sentences helps your reader see the connections between ideas.
The parallel structures which have been emphasized help the reader see that the paragraph is organized as a set of examples of a general statement. Be consistent in point of view, verb tense, and number. Consistency in point of view, verb tense, and number is a subtle but important aspect of coherence.
Such inconsistencies can also confuse your reader and make your argument more difficult to follow. Use transition words or phrases between sentences and between paragraphs.
Transitional expressions emphasize the relationships between ideas, so they help readers follow your train of thought or see connections that they might otherwise miss or misunderstand. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not so fast as body size. SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals.
IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular.
To indicate logical relationship: Paragraph sprawl occurs when digressions are introduced into an otherwise focused and unified discussion. Digressions and deviations often come in the form of irrelevant details or shifts in focus. Irrelevant Details When I was growing up, one of the places I enjoyed most was the cherry tree in the back yard.
Behind the yard was an alley and then more houses. Every summer when the cherries began to ripen, I used to spend hours high in the tree, picking and eating the sweet, sun-warmed cherries. My mother always worried about my falling out of the tree, but I never did. But I had some competition for the cherries — flocks of birds that enjoyed them as much as I did and would perch all over the tree, devouring the fruit whenever I wasn't there.
I used to wonder why the grown-ups never ate any of the cherries; but actually when the birds and I had finished, there weren't many left. No sentence is completely irrelevant to the general topic of this paragraph the cherry tree , but the sentences Behind the yard was an alley and then more houses and My mother always worried about my falling out of the tree, but I never did do not develop the specific idea in the first sentence: It is a fact that capital punishment is not a deterrent to crime.
Once again, no sentence in this paragraph to the left is completely irrelevant to the general topic capital punishment , but the specific focus of this paragraph shifts abruptly twice. The paragraph starts out with a clear claim in sentence 1: Sentence 2 provides evidence in support of the initial claim: Statistics show that in states with capital punishment, murder rates are the same or almost the same as in states without capital punishment.
Sentence3, however, shifts the focus from capital punishment as a deterrent to crime to the cost of incarceration: It is also true that it is more expensive to put a person on death row than in life imprisonment because of the costs of maximum security.
Sentence 4 once again shifts the focus, this time to issues of justice: Unfortunately, capital punishment has been used unjustly. Sentences 5 and 6, Statistics show that every execution is of a man and that nine out of ten are black and So prejudice shows right through, follow from 4 if one believes that executing men and blacks is in fact evidence of injustice and prejudice.
More importantly, however, we are now a long way off from the original claim, that capital punishment does not deter crime. The focus has shifted from deterrence to expense to fairness D. Aktifitas Pembelajaran Exercise 1: Try to write only a topic sentence for this paragraph.
I hate lie. I always try not to tell lies and I want that from my friends, too. I think it is the most important behavior. I can believe everything my friends say. In addition, a good friend must say his ideas to me firstly.
I mean, he shouldn't talk about me with other people. Especially about the bad thing, he doesn't have to talk because it might be wrong. Secondly, a good friend must help me. He must do his best. He should ask help from me too. If we solve problems together, our friendship will be better and it will become stronger.
Thirdly, the talking time is important. I can talk with my friends for a long time, and during that time I must be happy.
That's why we should like the same things. In conclusion, trust is the basics of a friendship. Exercise 2. Write your topic sentence in the box. A good friend is a person who doesn't tell me lies, who helps me and let me help him, and who I can talk to in trust. Read the information below Development of the ideas: It means that every idea discussed in the paragraph should be adequately explained and supported through evidence and examples. We generally believe that people would easily understand us when we write.
Unfortunately, our use of language may not be perfect and our ideas may be different. If we want our ideas to be understood, we need to explain them and give specific examples of each. Listing our ideas is never enough. See the example below: Exercise 4: First of all, a friend mustn't tell lie. He must always tell me the truth and he must be honest because if there is honesty between two friends, their relationship will last until death.
In addition to honesty, helping or being near a friend on a bad day is very important. Another point to consider is that he must criticize me if I make a mistake. If we list the ideas, here is what we get: A friend must: This means, the ideas are not developed. It also lacks a topic sentence. Let's read the original student paragraph below and read the explanation: Friends play a great role in our lives.
They effect our lives negatifly or positifly. We should choose them very carefully. First, we can look at his behaviors. If it is OK, no problem but if it is not, we can't become a "Kanka".
After that, we can look at his activities. It is very important to do something together. We must beware of people who has bad habits such as smoking, bad speaking, etc. Some people don't think so but I think finally we should look at his phsical aparians because if you have diffirentphsical aparianse than him, you can't be relaxable. For example if you are taller than him, this generally does unrelaxable to him. As a consequently, it is very important to choose a friend according to your especialities.
Here it is the discusson. First of all, "negatif" and "positif" are written in Turkish or almost in Turkish "pozitif".
We, Turkish learners of English, generally make this mistake both in writing and in speaking consider "psychology, sociology". We may have similar words in both languages; however, we must pay attention to their spellings and pronunciations.
Secondly, "Kanka" is a Turkish word.
It is correct to highlight it either by using double quotations or writing in italics, but does this explain what "Kanka" means? Do all of us including foreign instructors reading this writing need to know this word which is used mostly by teenagers?
It is common practice to use foreign words or expressions. If we use them, we need to make ourselves clear by explaining their meanings. Thirdly, we see many misspelled words. We can deduce what they are but do we have to? Unless we write words correctly, we cannot expect others to understand us.
If they want to understand me, they should get used to my style" would not help anyone, and should not be. Read the text and define the coherence. It means that the sentences should be organized in a logical manner and should follow a definite plan of development. Exercise 7. Read the original student paper and I live in a house in Izmit.
It isn't old or modern. It's a normal Turkish house. We can say it is near the sea. It takes about 10 minutes to go to the sea side on foot. We have one bedroom, one living room. We also have two other rooms, too. We use them as a dining room. Naturally, we have a kitchen, a bathroom, and a toilet. I live with my parents.
And our house has a little garden; my parents spend their time there to grow vegetables and fruit. Here it is the explanation. First, let's see the order of the ideas: Where the house is 2. Type of the house 3. The location 4. The rooms in the house 5. The fact that he lives with his parents 6. The garden The paragraph is well organized until he says he lives with his parents. It looks like this idea interrupted his description of the house. It should be put somewhere else in the paragraph.
Read the explanation below and get the point of the text. Coherence and Unity Coherence refers to a certain characteristic or aspect of writing. Literally, the word means "to stick together. With coherence, the reader has an easy time understanding the ideas that you wish to express. Consider the paragraph below: My hometown is famous for several amazing natural features.
First, it is noted for the Wheaton River, which is very wide and beautiful. On either side of this river, which is feet wide, are many willow trees which have long branches that can move gracefully in the wind. In autumn the leaves of thesetrees fall and cover the riverbanks like golden snow. Second, on the other side of the town is Wheaton Hill, which is unusual because it is very steep. Even though it is steep, climbing this hill is not dangerous, because there are some firm rocks along the sides that can be used as stairs.
There are no trees around this hill, so it stands clearly against the sky and can be seen from many miles away. The third amazing feature is the Big Old Tree. This tree stands two hundred feet tall and is probably about six hundred years old. These three landmarks are truly amazing and make my hometown a famous place. Exercise 9. Do you see how they help guide the reader? For example, consider the words, First, Second, andThe third amazing feature. We can call these words major connectors.
Major connectors help organize the main parts of your paragraph. This paragraph has three main parts: Using such major connectors is an important way of providing coherence in a paragraph. Exercise Read the explanation about Minor Connectors. What about the other words in bold, such as those appearing in the phrases "these trees" and "this hill"? We can call these minor connectors.
Minor connectors provide coherence to a paragraph by connecting sentences within each of the main parts of your paragraph. That is, when you write about your main points, you can use minor connectors to link your details to each main point. Now, look at this paragraph. Can you identify the main points? Each of the U. The Mercury project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space.
The Mercury project tested rockets with the new Mercury space capsule, which could hold one person. The Gemini project was intended to find out whether two people could work in the weightless environment of space.
Gemini astronauts took "spacewalks. Gemini astronauts tried out new flying skills. Some astronauts flew two spacecraft extremely close together; this procedure was called "rendezvous. Linking, or "space docking," was a major goal of the Gemini program. The Apollo project, with three astronauts, was intended to test spacecraft and skills so that people could actually fly to the Moon and land on it. Performing scientific experiments on the lunar surface and collecting rocks for study on Earth were goals.
Was this paragraph a little confusing to read? Now consider the same paragraph with a few changes: For example, the Mercury project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. In addition, the Mercury project tested rockets with the new Mercury space capsule, which could hold one person. As another example, the Gemini project was intended to find out whether two people could work in the weightless environment of space.
One way of doing this was by having Gemini astronauts take "spacewalks. Gemini astronauts alsotried out new flying skills. For example, some astronauts flew two spacecraft extremely close together; this procedure was called "rendezvous. This linking, or "space docking," was a major goal of the Gemini program. Finally, the Apollo project, with three astronauts, had the goal of testing spacecraft and skills so that people could actually fly to the Moon and land on it.
Other goals includedperforming scientific experiments on the lunar surface and collecting rocks for study on Earth. Do you see which of the connectors above are major and which are minor? The major ones are For example in the second sentence, which introduces the first supporting point the Mercury program ; As another example, which begins the second main point the Gemini program ; and the word Finally, which introduces the third and last main point the Apollo moon program.
In the paragraph above, all of the major connectors are underlined. As for the minor connectors, we can divide them into three groups. The first group of minor connectors provides coherence for the first main point the Mercury program. There is only one minor connector in this first group, In addition, although it is possible to have more than one, depending on how many details you have to support your first main point.
The second group of minor connectors consists of That is, also, and also the phrase For example in the sentence, "For example, some astronauts However, the function of each is different, depending on the meaning of the sentences.
The third group of minor connectors in this particular paragraph also has one member, which is Other goals included Here is a table of a few common connectors also called transitions: For example, As another example, On the one hand, For instance, Another example of On the other hand, One example of [xxx] is that However, this is Finally, To summarize, Paragraph Unity Unity is a very important characteristic of good paragraph writing.
That is, all the sentences -- the topic, supporting sentences, the detail sentences, and sometimes the concluding sentence -- are all telling the reader about ONE main topic. If your paragraph contains a sentence or some sentences that are NOT related to the main topic, then we say that the paragraph "lacks unity," or that the sentence is "off- topic.
Does it have perfect unity? Try to find the sentence that is off-topic: Each of the Russian manned space exploration projects had specific major goals. For example, the Vostok project was designed to test whether or not human beings could survive and function in outer space. For another example, the Voshkhod project was intended to find out whether people could work in the weightless environment of space. One Voshkhod cosmonaut experimented with weightlessness by taking a "spacewalk.
The cosmonaut to do this was Alexei Leonov. Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U. Finally, the Soyuz project, with three cosmonauts, had goals of testing spacecraft and spaceflight skills so that people could fly long missions in Earth orbit.
This paragraph is generally good, but the sentence, Several weeks later, Leonov's spacewalk was followed by that of U. That is, it is an "off- topic" sentence, so we can say that the paragraph somewhat lacks unity.
In order to improve the paragraph, we should omit this sentence, even though it is historically accurate. Activity 1: These following activities will help you understanding more about text and non- text. Read them enjoyfully and make a shot summary about text and non text.
Give three examples for each text and non text. Stage 1 Observing text and non-text Look at these following pictures!
What do the pictures mean? In which situation can you understand the meaning? What do the sentences mean? If you can totally understand the meaning, you find a text! If you can not understand the meaning, it means that you find a non-text!
Untuk mengecek pemahaman anda, kerjakan Exercise 1! Give the reasons why you can say the things you find as text and non-text! Discuss with your friends! To check your understanding, please do the exercises! These following activities will help you expressing your ideas in a sentence or sentences. Read the instruction and make them done. Stage 1 Observing Pictures To express your ideas, you need something to represent your ideas. Observe these pictures that guide you to make a sentence or sentences!
Write down a word below each picture! Using the pictures and the words in the stage 1, make the details of each picture! Look at the following example! Based on the detail of each word you have made in the stage 2, make the sentences!
Study the following example! Detail watermelon: I like red watermelon fruit: It is a fruit which is rich of Vitamin A. The farmers bring the fresh watermelon to the market.
Agar anda dapat mengungkapkan gagasan dalam kalimat dengan lebih baik, Exercise 2 dapat anda kerjakan! Activity 3: Now you will make a paragraph. Read the explanation and make some summary. Stage 1 Determining a main idea In Activity 2 you have expressed ideas in sentences. To write a paragraph, you need to define your main ideas. Stage 2 Making an outline of paragraph you make an outline consisting the detail of your main idea.
Your main idea is reflected in your main sentence. Then, your detail will be your supporting sentences. Look at the example! Outline Example Main idea: Watermelon is my favourite fruit red: The farmers bring it fresh.
Paragraph Example Watermelon is my favourite fruit. I like red watermelon. It is a fruit is rich of Vitamin A. Pada kegiatan pembelajaran 2 ini, disajikan materi tentang fungsi sosial, struktur teks, dan unsur kebahasaan yang harus dikuasai dalam mempelajari teks notice, announcement, dan letter. Beragam jenis teks dan karakteristiknya masing- masing Activity 4.
Read the following explanation and make some summary.
Teks fungsional pendek dapat kita temui di tempat- tempat umum public places dalam bentuk larangan prohibition , peringatan caution , panduan guidance , undangan invitation , Kartu Ucapan Greeting Cards , pesan pendek short message , daftar belanja shopping list ,dan informasi lain yang mengandung makna dan digunakan dalam komunikasi sehari-hari.
Pada modul ini akan diulas secara singkat tentang teks fungsional pendek berbentuk notice, announcement, dan letter. Notice dapat berupa tanda symbol atau tulisan yang bermakna peringatan atau pengumuman.
Ada beberapa jenis teks fungsional berbentuk notice yang banyak ditemui ditempat tempat umumseperti di rumah sakit, sekolah, jalanan, pusat perbelanjaan, toko buku, tempat rekreasi, hotel, dsb. Prohibition Prohibition larangan dimaksudkan untuk memberikan peringatan kepada publik untuk tidak melakukan sesuatu. Biasanya prohition banyak ditemukan di tempat-tempat umum seperti di taman, rumah sakit, lembaga pemerintahan, pusat rekreasi, dsb. Di bawah ini contoh prohibition dalam bentuk gambar atau simbol: Caution Caution peringatan dimaksudkan untuk memberi peringatan kepada publik untuk berhati-hati dalam melakukan atau menangani sesuatu.
Caution peringatan sering ditemukan di tempat-tempat umum seperti di rumah sakit, gedung-gedung perkantoran, dsb. Selain itu, caution juga biasa kita temukan pada perangkat elektronik, pemadam kebakaran, dan perangkat umum lainnya yang memerlukan penanganan khusus.
Berikut ini contoh caution dalam bentuk gambar atau simbol: Informational notice Informational notice pemberitahuan informasi bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi yang akurat tentang suatu hal. Seperti halnya caution, Informational notice sering kita temukan di tempat umum seperti bandara, stasiun kereta api, terminal, hotel, pusat pertokoan, dsb.
Berikut ini adalah beberapa contoh informational notice: Berikut ini contoh notice dalam bentuk tulisan: Activity 6. Choose 5 pictures above randomly and make a dialog context for each picture. Activity 7. Choose 5 other pictures and describe or explain each picture in a short paragraph. Ideas to write this paper derive from my Otherwise, they will not be able to teach and reflective experience Gebhard, in to guide their future students to do so.
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Then, grammar objectives, the study obviously needed to also concerns with how words are formed delve detailed personal responses from and how we can change their forms to research participants that indicated my express various meanings. For instance, we limited control over the exploration can add —d to the verb arrive, so we can Malilang, Therefore, I employed a make it arrived expressing something done in qualitative approach that helps to the past.
Eventually, Harmer , p. Grammar can thus be partly seen as knowledge of what words can go where In particular, I approached the study using and what form these words should take.
They were all the second showing a situation in which people semester students who took Basic Grammar learn English in a formal classroom with class in the previous semester. On the other hand, this Procedural Writing classes. Therefore, it was particularly in Indonesia could reflect and supposed that they were able to reflect on find conceivable ways to help their students factors that helped them to do so.
Eventually, the findings were sentences. I translated the statement into expected to help EFL students, particularly their first language, Bahasa Indonesia, L1 and in Indonesia to minimize their grammatical allowed them to provide written responses problems, and help them to enhance their to the statement using the same language, grammatical accuracy, as an attempt to for I aimed to ensure that they understood support their roles as a future professional the statement completely and responded it English teacher and language user.
In addition to the questionnaire, I conducted a semi-structured interview, in DOI: In essence, the interviewees Indonesian undergraduates in EFL context were three students two students were from on factors that conceivably help them to the writing class, and the other was from the write grammatical sentences.
To achieve the listening class who, based on my objective, I present the research results observation, made most minor grammatical obtained from the questionnaire data that problems in their written assignments.
For specifically show some generated categories the same reason, I conducted the interview related to the factors. To provide the in their L1.
To keep the confidentiality, the trustworthy discussions, I support the names of all participants in this study were research results from the questionnaire data kept in codes. For the purpose of the study, I Data collection translated all the excerpts into English. To collect the data, I asked the students to respond the statement on Friday, 10th April Factors helping the students to write , while those in the listening class did it grammatical sentences on Monday, 13th April Then, I As the results of the analysis, the present proceeded to the interview section on Friday study reveals fifty-two cited responses about 17th April Other categories include classroom grammar review, watching English movies, Data analysis self-checking, learning from mistakes, listening to English songs.
Table 1 depicts All the written responses and the interview the categories. The analyzed factors that help containing in written documents Neuman, the students to write In one of the levels, I got a lesson on present tenses, so I started to understand them.
The category covers have written. This is My lecturer is very kind and cares us. He does it every week.