Ramayana is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . Books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books (Bala Kanda and Uttara Kanda, respectively) are later additions, as some. gaquavervahip.ga: Mahabharata and Ramayana: The Epics of India ( ): Veda Vyasa, Valmiki Adi-Kavi, Romesh C. Dutt: Books. The Ramayana: A Modern Retelling of the Great Indian Epic [Ramesh of the Great Indian Epic and millions of other books are available for site Kindle.
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Here is a list of transliterations and interpretations of the remarkable epic The Ramayana. Ramayana download the entire epic work about Rama, Sita and Hanuman. This Ramayana download is in 4 pdf books - the complete Valmikis. The Ramayana book. Read 93 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The great Indian epic rendered in modern proseIndia's most beloved and.
In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24, verses. The text survives in several thousand partial and complete manuscripts, the oldest of which is a palm-leaf manuscript found in Nepal and dated to the 11th century CE. A Times of India report dated 18 December informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata.
Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman differentiates two major regional revisions: Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that "the Ramayana , like the Mahabharata , is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind. There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last volumes Bala Kanda and Uttara Kanda of Valmiki's Ramayana were composed by the original author.
Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book. Retellings include Kamban 's Ramavataram in Tamil c. Ramayana predates the Mahabharata. However, the general cultural background of Ramayana is one of the post- urbanization periods of the eastern part of north India and Nepal , while Mahabharata reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period.
By tradition, the text belongs to the Treta Yuga , second of the four eons yuga of Hindu chronology. Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga to king Dasharatha in the Ikshvaku dynasty.
However, nowhere in the surviving Vedic poetry is there a story similar to the Ramayana of Valmiki. According to the modern academic view, Vishnu , who, according to Bala Kanda , was incarnated as Rama , first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further, during the puranic period of the later 1st millennium CE. Also, in the epic Mahabharata, there is a version of Ramayana known as Ramopakhyana. This version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira.
Books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books Bala Kanda and Uttara Kanda, respectively are later additions, as some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book. Dasharatha was the king of Ayodhya. He had three wives: Kaushalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and anxious to produce an heir, so he performs a fire sacrifice known as putra-kameshti yagya.
These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence of the Supreme Trinity Entity Vishnu ; Vishnu had opted to be born into mortality to combat the demon Ravana , who was oppressing the gods, and who could only be destroyed by a mortal. The boys are reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare from Vashistha. When Rama is 16 years old, sage Vishwamitra comes to the court of Dasharatha in search of help against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites.
He chooses Rama, who is followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story. Rama and Lakshmana receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra and proceed to destroy the demons.
Janaka was the king of Mithila. One day, a female child was found in the field by the king in the deep furrow dug by his plough. Overwhelmed with joy, the king regarded the child as a "miraculous gift of god". The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit word for furrow. Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. The king had decided that who ever could lift and wield the heavy bow, presented to his ancestors by Shiva , could marry Sita.
Sage Vishwamitra takes Rama and Lakshmana to Mithila to show the bow. Then Rama desires to lift it and goes on to wield the bow and when he draws the string, it breaks. The weddings are celebrated with great festivity in Mithila and the marriage party returns to Ayodhya. After Rama and Sita have been married for twelve years, an elderly Dasharatha expresses his desire to crown Rama, to which the Kosala assembly and his subjects express their support.
On the eve of the great event, Kaikeyi — her jealousy aroused by Manthara , a wicked maidservant — claims two boons that Dasharatha had long ago granted her. Kaikeyi demands Rama to be exiled into the wilderness for fourteen years, while the succession passes to her son Bharata. The heartbroken king, constrained by his rigid devotion to his given word, accedes to Kaikeyi's demands.
Rama accepts his father's reluctant decree with absolute submission and calm self-control which characterises him throughout the story. He is joined by Sita and Lakshmana. When he asks Sita not to follow him, she says, "the forest where you dwell is Ayodhya for me and Ayodhya without you is a veritable hell for me.
Meanwhile, Bharata who was on a visit to his maternal uncle, learns about the events in Ayodhya. Bharata refuses to profit from his mother's wicked scheming and visits Rama in the forest. He requests Rama to return and rule. But Rama, determined to carry out his father's orders to the letter, refuses to return before the period of exile.
After thirteen years of exile, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana journey southward along the banks of river Godavari , where they build cottages and live off the land. At the Panchavati forest they are visited by a rakshasi named Shurpanakha , sister of Ravana.
She tries to seduce the brothers and, after failing, attempts to kill Sita. Lakshmana stops her by cutting off her nose and ears. Hearing of this, her brother Khara organises an attack against the princes. Rama defeats Khara and his raskshasas.
When the news of these events reach Ravana, he resolves to destroy Rama by capturing Sita with the aid of the rakshasa Maricha. Maricha, assuming the form of a golden deer, captivates Sita's attention. Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita pleads with Rama to capture it. Rama, aware that this is the ploy of the demons, cannot dissuade Sita from her desire and chases the deer into the forest, leaving Sita under Lakshmana's guard. After some time, Sita hears Rama calling out to her; afraid for his life, she insists that Lakshmana rush to his aid.
Lakshmana tries to assure her that Rama is invincible and that it is best if he continues to follow Rama's orders to protect her. On the verge of hysterics, Sita insists that it is not she but Rama who needs Lakshmana's help. He obeys her wish but stipulates that she is not to leave the cottage or entertain any stranger.
He draws a chalk outline, the Lakshmana rekha , around the cottage and casts a spell on it that prevents anyone from entering the boundary but allows people to exit. With the coast finally clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita's hospitality. Unaware of her guest's plan, Sita is tricked into leaving the rekha and is then forcibly carried away by Ravana.
Jatayu , a vulture , tries to rescue Sita, but is mortally wounded. At Lanka, Sita is kept under the guard of rakshasis. Ravana asks Sita to marry him, but she refuses, being eternally devoted to Rama. Meanwhile, Rama and Lakshmana learn about Sita's abduction from Jatayu and immediately set out to save her. During their search, they meet Kabandha and the ascetic Shabari , who direct them towards Sugriva and Hanuman. Kishkindha Kanda is set in the ape Vanara citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the biggest devotee of Rama, greatest of ape heroes and an adherent of Sugriva , the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha.
Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kishkindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita.
However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in enjoying his powers. The clever former ape queen Tara wife of Vali calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the ape citadel. She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honour his pledge. Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west.
The southern search party under the leadership of Angada and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati elder brother of Jatayu , that Sita was taken to Lanka. Sundara Kanda forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramayana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman 's adventures.
After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka. On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities.
He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Lord Hanuman assistance and offers him rest. Lord Hanuman refuses because there is little time remaining to complete the search for Sita.
After entering into Lanka, he finds a demon, Lankini, who protects all of Lanka.
Hanuman fights with her and subjugates her in order to get into Lanka. Here, Hanuman explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, where she is being wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana. Hanuman reassures Sita, giving Rama's signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita back to Rama; however, she refuses and says that it is not the dharma, stating that Ramayana will not have significance if Hanuman carries her to Rama — "When Rama is not there Ravana carried Sita forcibly and when Ravana was not there, Hanuman carried Sita back to Rama".
She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction. Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana's warriors.
He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island.
The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news. Also known as Lanka Kanda , this book describes the war between the army of Rama and the army of Ravana.
Having received Hanuman's report on Sita, Rama and Lakshmana proceed with their allies towards the shore of the southern sea.
There they are joined by Ravana's renegade brother Vibhishana. The apes named Nala and Nila construct a floating bridge known as Rama Setu  across the sea, using stones that floated on water because they had Rama's name written on them.
The princes and their army cross over to Lanka. A lengthy war ensues. During a battle, Ravana's son Indrajit hurls a powerful weapon at Lakshmana, who is badly wounded. So Hanuman assumes a gigantic form and flies from Lanka to the Himalayas. Upon reaching Mount Sumeru, Hanuman was unable to identify the herb that could cure Lakshmana and so decided to bring the entire mountain back to Lanka. Eventually, the war ends when Rama kills Ravana. Rama then installs Vibhishana on the throne of Lanka.
On meeting Sita, Rama asks her to undergo an Agni Pariksha test of fire to prove her chastity, as he wants to get rid of the rumors surrounding her purity. When Sita plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni , lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her innocence.
In Tulsidas 's Ramacharitamanas , Sita was under the protection of Agni see Maya Sita so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama.
At the expiration of his term of exile, Rama returns to Ayodhya with Sita and Lakshmana, where the coronation is performed. This is the beginning of Ram Rajya, which implies an ideal state with good morals. Ramayan is not only the story about how truth defeats the evil, it also teaches us to forget all the evil and arrogance that resides inside ourselves. As in many oral epics, multiple versions of the Ramayana survive.
In particular, the Ramayana related in north India differs in important respects from that preserved in south India and the rest of southeast Asia. There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana written by various authors in India.
Some of them differ significantly from each other. During the 12th century, Kamban wrote Ramavataram , known popularly as Kambaramayanam in Tamil. The earliest translation to a regional Indo-Aryan language is the early 14th century Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese by Madhava Kandali. Valmiki's Ramayana inspired Sri Ramacharit Manas by Tulsidas in , an epic Awadhi a dialect of Hindi version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu literature, that of bhakti ; it is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana.
Gujarati poet Premanand wrote a version of the Ramayana in the 17th century. There is a sub-plot to the Ramayana , prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahiravan and Mahi Ravana, evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman in the story. Hanuman rescues Rama and Lakshmana after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-Mahi Ravana at the behest of Ravana and held prisoner in a subterranean cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali. Adbhuta Ramayana is a version that is obscure but also attributed to Valmiki — intended as a supplementary to the original Valmiki Ramayana.
In this variant of the narrative, Sita is accorded far more prominence, such as elaboration of the events surrounding her birth — in this case to Ravana 's wife, Mandodari as well as her conquest of Ravana's older brother in her Mahakali form.
Sita was the wife of Rama. To protect his children from his wife Kaikeyi, who wished to promote her son Bharata, Dasharatha sent the three to a hermitage in the Himalayas for a twelve-year exile.
There is no Ravan in this version i. But, Ravana appears in other Buddhist literature, the Lankavatara Sutra. Jain versions of the Ramayana can be found in the various Jain agamas like Ravisena's Padmapurana story of Padmaja and Rama , Padmaja being the name of Sita , Hemacandra 's Trisastisalakapurusa charitra hagiography of 63 illustrious persons , Sanghadasa's Vasudevahindi and Uttarapurana by Gunabhadara.
According to Jain cosmology , every half time cycle has nine sets of Balarama , Vasudeva and prativasudeva. Rama, Lakshmana and Ravana are the eighth baladeva , vasudeva and prativasudeva respectively. Instead they serve as names of two distinct classes of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half time cycle and jointly rule half the earth as half- chakravartins. Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the jinacharitra lives of jinas by Acharya Bhadrabahu 3d—4th century BCE.
Perhaps this is because Rama, a liberated Jain Soul in his last life, is unwilling to kill. On the other hand, Lakshmana and Ravana go to Hell. However, it is predicted that ultimately they both will be reborn as upright persons and attain liberation in their future births.
According to Jain texts , Ravana will be the future Tirthankara omniscient teacher of Jainism. The Jain versions have some variations from Valmiki's Ramayana. Dasharatha, the king of Saketa had four queens: Aparajita, Sumitra, Suprabha and Kaikeyi.
These four queens had four sons. Aparajita's son was Padma and he became known by the name of Rama. Sumitra's son was Narayana: Kaikeyi's son was Bharata and Suprabha's son was Shatrughna. Furthermore, not much was thought of Rama's fidelity to Sita. According to the Jain version, Rama had four chief queens: Maithili, Prabhavati, Ratinibha, and Sridama. Furthermore, Sita takes renunciation as a Jain ascetic after Rama abandons her and is reborn in heaven.
Rama, after Lakshmana's death, also renounces his kingdom and becomes a Jain monk. Ultimately, he attains Kevala Jnana omniscience and finally liberation. Rama predicts that Ravana and Lakshmana, who were in the fourth hell , will attain liberation in their future births. Accordingly, Ravana is the future tirthankara of the next half ascending time cycle and Sita will be his Ganadhara.
In Guru Granth Sahib , there is a description of two types of Ramayana. One is a spiritual Ramayana which is the actual subject of Guru Granth Sahib, in which Ravana is ego, Sita is budhi intellect , Rama is inner soul and Laxman is mann attention, mind. Guru Granth Sahib also believes in the existence of Dashavatara who were kings of their times which tried their best to restore order to the world. Guru Granth Sahib states:. He also said that the almighty, invisible, all prevailing God created great numbers of Indras, Moons and Suns, Deities, Demons and sages, and also numerous saints and Brahmanas enlightened people.
But they too were caught in the noose of death Kaal transmigration of the soul. This is similar to the explanation in Bhagavad Gita which is part of the Mahabharata. Besides being the site of discovery of the oldest surviving manuscript of the Ramayana , Nepal gave rise to two regional variants in mid 19th — early 20th century. One, written by Bhanubhakta Acharya , is considered the first epic of Nepali language , while the other, written by Siddhidas Mahaju in Nepal Bhasa was a foundational influence in the Nepal Bhasa renaissance.
Ramayana written by Bhanubhakta Acharya is one of the most popular verses in Nepal. The popularization of the Ramayana and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta.
The Cambodian version of the Ramayana , Reamker Khmer: It adapts the Hindu concepts to Buddhist themes and shows the balance of good and evil in the world. The Reamker has several differences from the original Ramayana , including scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman and Sovanna Maccha , a retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions.
Reamker in Cambodia is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dance , theatre known as lakhorn luang the foundation of the royal ballet , poetry and the mural and bas-reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda and Angkor Wat. One of the recognizable modifications is the inclusion of the indigenous Javanese guardian demigod, Semar , and his sons, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong who make up the numerically significant four Punokawan or "clown servants".
Kakawin Ramayana was further developed on the neighboring island of Bali becoming the Balinese Ramakavaca. The bas-reliefs of Ramayana and Krishnayana scenes are carved on balustrades of the 9th century Prambanan temple in Yogyakarta ,  as well as in the 14th century Penataran temple in East Java. The performance also includes a fire show to describe the burning of Lanka by Hanuman.
One example of a dance production of the Ramayana in Java is the Ramayana Ballet performed on the Trimurti Prambanan open air stage, with the three main prasad spires of the Prambanan Hindu temple as a backdrop. The story of Lakshmana and Rama is told as the previous life of Gautama buddha. Yama Zatdaw is the Burmese version of Ramayana.
It is also considered the unofficial national epic of Myanmar. There are nine known pieces of the Yama Zatdaw in Myanmar. The Burmese name for the story itself is Yamayana, while zatdaw refers to the acted play or being part of the jataka tales of Theravada Buddhism.
This Burmese version is also heavily influenced by Ramakien Thai version of Ramayana which resulted from various invasions by Konbaung Dynasty kings toward the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
The Maharadia Lawana , an epic poem of the Maranao people of the Philippines , has been regarded as an indigenized version of the Ramayana since it was documented and translated into English by Professor Juan R.
Francisco and Nagasura Madale in Francisco, an indologist from the University of the Philippines Manila , believed that the Ramayana narrative arrived in the Philippines some time between the 17th to 19th centuries, via interactions with Javanese and Malaysian cultures which traded extensively with India.
By the time it was documented in the s, the character names, place names, and the precise episodes and events in Maharadia Lawana's narrative already had some notable differences from those of the Ramayana. Francisco believed that this was a sign of "indigenization", and suggested that some changes had already been introduced in Malaysia and Java even before the story was heard by the Maranao, and that upon reaching the Maranao homeland, the story was " further indigenized to suit Philippine cultural perspectives and orientations.
Thailand's popular national epic Ramakien Thai: In Ramakien, Sita is the daughter of Ravana and Mandodari thotsakan and montho. He was married to Shrutakirti. Allies of Rama[ edit ] Vanara Hanuman is a vanara belonging to the kingdom of Kishkindha. He is an ideal bhakta of Rama.
He plays an important part in locating Sita and in the ensuing battle. He is believed to live until our modern world. Sugriva , a vanara king who helped Rama regain Sita from Ravana. He had an agreement with Rama through which Vali — Sugriva's brother and king of Kishkindha — would be killed by Rama in exchange for Sugriva's help in finding Sita. Sugriva ultimately ascends the throne of Kishkindha after the slaying of Vali and fulfills his promise by putting the Vanara forces at Rama's disposal.
Angada is a vanara who helped Rama find his wife Sita and fight her abductor, Ravana , in Ramayana. He was son of Vali and Tara and nephew of Sugriva.
Angada and Tara are instrumental in reconciling Rama and his brother, Lakshmana , with Sugriva after Sugriva fails to fulfill his promise to help Rama find and rescue his wife. Together they are able to convince Sugriva to honour his pledge to Rama instead of spending his time carousing and drinking. Rikshas are bears. It is he who makes Hanuman realize his immense capabilities and encourages him to fly across the ocean to search for Sita in Lanka.
A demi-god who has the form of a vulture that tries to rescue Sita from Ravana. Jatayu fought valiantly with Ravana, but as Jatayu was very old, Ravana soon got the better of him.
As Rama and Lakshmana chanced upon the stricken and dying Jatayu in their search for Sita, he informs them of the direction in which Ravana had gone. Sampati , son of Aruna , brother of Jatayu.
Sampati's role proved to be instrumental in the search for Sita. Rakshasa Vibhishana , youngest brother of Ravana. He was against the abduction of Sita and joined the forces of Rama when Ravana refused to return her. His intricate knowledge of Lanka was vital in the war and he was crowned king after the fall of Ravana.
He was son of a sage named Vishrava and daitya princess Kaikesi. After performing severe penance for ten thousand years he received a boon from the creator-god Brahma : he could henceforth not be killed by gods, demons, or spirits. He is portrayed as a powerful demon king who disturbs the penances of rishis.
Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat him, thus circumventing the boon given by Brahma. Indrajit or Meghnadha, the eldest son of Ravana who twice defeated Rama and Lakshmana in battle, before succumbing to Lakshmana.
An adept of the magical arts, he coupled his supreme fighting skills with various stratagems to inflict heavy losses on Vanara army before his death. Kumbhakarna , brother of Ravana, famous for his eating and sleeping. He would sleep for months at a time and would be extremely ravenous upon waking up, consuming anything set before him.
His monstrous size and loyalty made him an important part of Ravana's army. During the war he decimated the Vanara army before Rama cut off his limbs and head.